Identification and Evaluation of Bacillus Species Bacteria from Sago Industrial Waste
Amylase is one of the significant enzymes which are of much use in the real world. These enzymes convert complex starch molecules into glucose or simple sugar units. Amylases are widely used in a number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation, textile, paper, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources play a key role in industrial sectors. Amylases are classified into three types: α- amylase, β- amylase and γ- amylase. α-Amylase is obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. The α-amylase production is crucial for the conversion of starch into simple sugar. Starch is an important ingredient of human food and is a major storage product of many economically important crops. In this article, the production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using sago industrial waste, where a few samples are taken and subjected to bacterial growth under separate specified substrates. About 25 waste samples are collected and the availability of bacteria is noted. It is found that, among these 25 samples, around eight strains showed the growth of bacteria producing alpha amylase and based on several studies, it is identified that the best source of this particular amylase production is by the bacterial species, Bacillus. Different approaches are exhibited based on temperature, pH, incubation period, nutrient medium and other constraints. It is concluded that alpha amylase enzyme is been produced from bacillus species bacteria. Enzymes are sometimes referred as bio-catalysts which are highly specific and catalyse reactions faster than chemical catalysts. α-Amylase is been extensively used as the result of microbial action under controlled conditions. These has been in increasing demand due to its vital role of starch hydrolysis and applications.
Enzymes, Hydrolysis, Industrial waste, Bacillus species, Bio-catalyst.