Determination of Harmful Metals in Water, Sediments and Fish from Vellar River, Tamil Nadu, India
The present work deals with the metal analysis in water, sediment and selected freshwater fish in the Vellar river collected from January to December 2011. The distribution of metal concentration observed in the water and sediment samples was in the order of Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Fe > Zn > Mn, of which the levels of Cd 1.68 ± 0.076 mg/l was the highest and Mn 0.04 ± 0.002 mg/l was the lowest that were recorded in the water sample of the selected Vellar river water. The highest concentration levels of Cd 1.70 ± 0.068 mg/kg and the least concentration of Mn 0.20 ± 0.008 mg/kg were recorded in its sediment samples. The metal concentration distribution in the selected fish organ samples examined was in the order of Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Fe > Zn and Mn in liver > gill > kidney > intestine > muscle. The highest concentration levels of Cd 1.78 ± 0.053 mg/kg dry weight and the least concentration levels of Mn 0.04 ± 0.002 mg/kg dry weight were observed in the liver tissue of Mugil cephalus. The distribution of metal concentration was found to be in the order of magnitude as Mugil cephalus > Heteropneustes fossilis > Mystus vittatus > Etroplus suratensis > Anabas testudineus. Rise in agricultural, domestic and anthropogenic wastes in the investigated area might be the reason behind such increased accumulation of metal levels in these five fishes.
Heavy metals, Sediment, Freshwater fish, Vellar river, Anthropogenic activities.